This post is part of my series comparing C++ to Rust, which I introduced with a discussion of C++ and Rust syntax. In this post, I discuss move semantics. This post is framed around the way moves are implemented in C++, and the fundamental problem with that implementation, With that context, I shall then explain how Rust implements the same feature. I know that move semantics in Rust are often confusing to new Rustaceans – though not as confusing as move semantics in C++ – and I think an exploration of how move semantics work in C++ can be helpful in understanding why Rust is designed the way it is, and why Rust is a better alternative to C++.

I am by far not the first person to discuss this topic, but I intend:

  • to discuss it thoroughly enough to contribute to the conversation
  • to nevertheless discuss it in such a way that those familiar with systems programming, but unfamiliar with either C++ or move semantics, can understand it, starting from first principles

Modern C++#

First, some background.

In 2011, C++ finally fixed a set of long-standing deficits in the programming language with the shiny new C++11 standard, bringing it into the modern era. Programmers enthusiastically pushed their companies to allow them to migrate their codebases, champing at the bit to be able to use these new features. Writers to this day talk about “modern C++,” with the cut-off being 2011. Programmers who only used C++ pre-C++11 are told that it is a new programming language, the best version of its old self, worth a complete fresh try.

There were a lot of new features to be excited about. C++ standard threads were added then – and thread standardization was indeed good, though anyone who wanted to use threads before likely had their choice of good libraries for their platform. Closures were also very exciting, especially for people like me who came from functional programming, but to be honest, closures were just syntactic sugar for existing patterns of boilerplate that could be readily used to write function objects.

Indeed, the real excitement at the time, certainly the one my colleagues and I were most excited about, was move semantics. To explain why this feature was so important, I’ll need to talk a little about the C++ object model, and the problem that move semantics exist to solve.

Value Semantics#

Let’s start by talking about a primitive type in C++: int. Objects – in C++ standard parlance, int values are indeed considered objects – of type int only take up a few bytes of storage, and so copying them has always been very cheap. When you assign an int from one variable to another, it is copied. When you pass it to a function, it is copied:

int print_i(int arg) {
    arg += 3;
    std::cout << arg << std::endl;

int foo = 3;
int bar = foo; // copy
foo += 1; // foo gets 4
std::cout << bar << std::endl; // bar is still 3
print_i(foo); // prints 4+3 ==> 7
std::cout << foo << std::endl; // foo is still 4

As you can see, every variable of type int acts independently of each other when mutated, which is how primitive types like int work in many programming languages.

In the C++ version of object-oriented programming, it was decided that values of custom, user-defined types would have the same semantics, that they would work the same way as the primitive types. So for C++ strings:

std::string foo = "foo";
std::string bar = foo; // copy (!)
foo += "__";
bar += "!!";
std::cout << foo << std::endl; // foo is "foo__"
std::cout << bar << std::endl; // bar is "foo!!"

This means that whenever we assign a string to a new variable, or pass it to a function, a copy is made. This is important, because the std::string object proper is just a handle, a small structure that manages a larger memory allocation on the heap, where the actual string data is stored. Each new std::string that is made via copy requires allocating a new heap allocation, a relatively expensive operation in performance.

This would cause a problem when we want to pass a std::string to a function, just like an int, but don’t want to actually make a copy of it. But C++ has a feature that helps with that: const references. Details of the C++ reference system are a topic for another post, but const references allow a function to operate on the std::string without the need for a copy, but still promising not to change the original value.

The feature is available for both int and std::string; the principle that they’re treated the same is preserved. But for the sake of performance, ints are passed by value, and std::strings are passed by const reference in the same situation. In practice, this dilutes the benefit of treating them the same, as in practice the function signatures are different if we don’t want to trigger spurious expensive deep copies:

void foo(int bar);
void foo(const std::string &bar);

If you instead declare the function foo like you would with an int, you get a poorly performing deep copy. The default is something you probably don’t want:

void foo(std::string bar);
void foo2(const std::string &bar);
std::string bar("Hi"); // Make one heap allocation
foo(bar); // Make another heap allocation
foo2(bar); // No copy is made

This is all part of “pre-modern” C++, but already we’re seeing negative consequences of the decision to treat int and std::string as identical when they are not, a decision that will get more gnarly when applied to moves. This is why Rust has the Copy trait to mark types like i32 (the Rust equivalent of int) as being copyable, so that they can be passed around freely, while requiring an explicit call to clone() for types like String so we know we’re paying the cost of a deep copy, or else an explicit indication that we’re passing by reference:

fn foo(bar: String) {
    // Implementation

fn foo2(bar: &str) {
    // Implementation

let bar = "hi".to_string();

The third option in Rust is to move, but we’ll discuss that after we discuss moves in C++.

Copy-Deletes and Moves#

C++ value semantics break down even more when we do need the function to hold onto the value. References are only valid as long as the original value is valid, and sometimes a function needs it to stay alive longer. Taking by reference is not an option when the object (whether int or std::string) is being added to a vector that will outlive the original object:

std::vector<int> vi;
std::vector<std::string> vs;
    int foo = 3;
    foo += 4;
} // foo goes out of scope, vi lives on
    std::string bar = "Hi!";
    bar += " Joe!";
} // bar goes out of scope, vs lives on

So, to add this string to the vector, we must first make an allocation corresponding to the object contained in the variable bar, and then must make a new allocation for the object that lives in vs, and then copy all the data.

Then, when bar goes out of scope, its destructor is called, as is done automatically whenever an object with a destructor goes out of scope. This allows std::string to free its heap allocation.

Which means we copied an allocation into a new heap allocation, just to free the original allocation. Copying an allocation and freeing the old one is equivalent to just re-using the old allocation, just slower. Wouldn’t it make more sense to make the string in the vector just refer to the same heap allocation that bar formerly did?

Such an operation is referred to as a “move,” and the original C++ – pre C++11 – didn’t support them. This was possibly because they didn’t make sense for ints, and so they were not added for objects that were trying to act like ints – but on the other hand, destructors were supported and ints don’t need to be destructed.

In any case, moves were not supported. And so, objects that managed resources – in this case, a heap allocation, but other resources could apply as well – could not be put onto vectors or stored in collections directly without a copy and delete of whatever resource was being managed.

Now, there were ways to handle this in pre-C++11 days. You could add an indirection, and make a heap allocation to contain the std::string object, which is only a small object with a pointer to another allocation, but would at least let you pass around a std::string * which is a raw pointer that would not trigger all these copies by automatically managing the heap allocation with this façade of value semantics. Or you could manually manage a C-style string with char *.

But the most ergonomic, clear std::vector<std::string> could not be used without performance degradation. Worse, if the vector ever needed to be resized, and had to itself switch to a different allocation, it would have to copy all those std::string objects internally and delete the originals, N useless reallocations.

As a demonstration of this, I wrote a sample program with a vastly simplified version of std::string, that tracks how many allocations it makes. It allows C++11-style moves to be enabled or disabled, and then it takes all the command line arguments, creates string objects out of them, and puts them in a vector. For 8 command line arguments, the version with move made, as you might expect, 8 allocations, whereas the version without the move, that just put these strings into a vector, made 23. Each time a string was added to a vector, a spurious allocation was made, and then N spurious allocations had to be made each time the vector doubled.

This problem is purely an artifact of the limitations of the tools provided by C++ to encapsulate and automatically manage memory, RAII and “value semantics.”

Consider this snippet of code:

// Pre-C++11, without moves
std::vector<std::string> vec;
{ // This might take place inside another function
  // Using local block scope for simplicity
    std::string foo = "Hi!";
    std::string bar = "Hello!";
// Use the vector

If we didn’t use this string class, we would then have not done a copy, just to free the original allocation. We would have simply put the pointer into the vector. We would then have been responsible for freeing all the allocations – once – when we’re done:

// Manually written equivalent
std::vector<char *> vec;
    // strdup, a POSIX call, makes a new allocation and copies a
    // string into it, here used to turn a static string into one
    // on the heap. We will assume we have a reason to store it
    // on the heap -- perhaps we did more manipulation in the
    // real application to generate the string.

    // The allocation is necessary to be the direct equivalent of
    // `vec.push_back("Hi")` or even `vec.emplace_back("Hi")` for
    // a `std::vector<std::string>, because that data structure has
    // the invariant that all strings in the vector must have their
    // own heap allocation (assuming no small string optimization,
    // which many strings are ineligible for).

    char *foo = strdup("Hi!");
    char *bar = strdup("Hello!");

// Use the vector

// Then, later, when we are done with the vector, free all the elements once
for (char *c: vec) {

The copy version of the C++ code instead does – after de-sugaring the RAII and value semantics and inlining – something that no programmer would ever write manually, something equivalent to this:

// Desugaring of pre-C++11 version of code
std::vector<char *> vec;
    char *foo = strdup("Hi");
    vec.push_back(strdup(foo)); // Why the additional allocate-and-copy?
    free(foo); // Because the destructor of foo will free the original
    char *bar = strdup("Hello!");

// Use the vec
for (char *c: vec) {

C++ without move semantics fails to reach its goal of zero-cost abstraction. The version with the abstraction, with the value semantics, compiles to code less efficient than any code someone would write manually, because what we really want is to allocate the allocation while it’s a local variable foo, use the same allocation on the vector, and then only free it on the vector.

The abstractions of only supporting “copy” and “destruct” mean that the destructor of the variable foo must be called when foo goes out of scope. This means that the “copy” operation must make an independent allocation, as it cannot control when the original goes out of scope, or will be replaced with another value. If we had instead re-used the same allocation, it would be freed by foos destructor.

But copying just to destroy the original is silly – silly and ill-performant. What any programmer would naturally write in that situation results in a “move”. So this gap – and it was a huge gap – in C++ value semantics was filled in C++11 when they added a “move” operation.

Because of this addition, using objects with value semantics that managed resources became possible. It also became possible to use objects with value semantics for resources that could not meaningfully be copied, like unique ownership of an object or a thread handle, while still being able to get the advantages of putting such objects in collections and, well, moving them. Shops that previously had to work around value semantics for performance reasons could now use them directly.

It is not, therefore, surprising that this was for many the most exciting change in C++11.

How Move Is Implemented in C++#

But for now, let’s put ourselves in the place of the language designers who designed this new move operation. What should this move operation look like? How could we integrate it into the rest of C++?

Ideally, we would want it to output – after inlining – exactly the code that we would expect to write manually. When foo is moved into the vector, the original allocation must not freed. Instead, it is only freed when the vector itself is freed. This is an absolute necessity to solve the problem as we must remove a free in order to remove the allocation, but we also cannot leak memory. If there is to be exactly one allocation, there must be exactly one deallocation.

Calls to free (or delete[] in my example program) are made in the destructor, so the most straight-forward way to go forward is to say that the destructor should only be called when the vector is destroyed, but not when foo goes out of scope. If foo is moved onto the vector, then the compiler should take note that it has been moved from, and simply not call the destructor. The move should be treated as having already destroyed the object, as an operation that accomplishes both initialization of the new object (the string on the vector) from the original object and the destruction of the original object.

This notion is called “destructive move,” and it is how moves are done in Rust, but it is not what C++ opted for. In Rust, the compiler would simply not output a destructor call (a “drop” in Rust) for foo because it has been moved from. But, in fact, the C++ compiler still does. In destructive move semantics, the compiler would not allow foo to be read from after the move, but in fact, the C++ compiler still does, not just for the destructor, but for any operation.

So how is the deallocation avoided, if the compiler doesn’t remove it in this situation? Well, there is a decision to make here. If an object has been moved from, no deallocation should be performed. If it has not, a deallocation should be performed. Rust makes this decision at compile-time (with rare exceptions where it has to add a “drop flag”), but C++ makes it at run-time.

When you write the code that defines what it means to move from an object in C++, you must make sure the original object is in a run-time state where the destructor will still be called on it, and will still succeed. And, since we established already that we must save a deallocation by moving, that means that the destructor must make a run-time decision as to whether to deallocate or not.

The more C-style post-inlining code for our example would then look something like this:

std::vector<char *> vec;
    char *foo = strdup("Hi!");
    foo = nullptr;
    if (foo != nullptr) {
    char *bar = strdup("Hi!");
    bar = nullptr;
    if (bar != nullptr) {

This null check is hidden by the fact that in C++, free and delete and friends are defined to be no-ops on null, but it still exists. And while the check might be very cheap compared to the cost of calling free, it might not be cheap when things are moved in a tight loop, where free is never actually called. That is to say, this run-time check is not cheap compared to the cost of not calling free.

So, given the semantics of move in C++, it results in code that is not the same as – and not as performant as – the equivalent hand-written C-style code, and therefore it is not a zero-cost abstraction, and doesn’t live up to the goals of C++.

Now, it looks like the optimizer should be able to clean up an adjacent set to null and check for null, but not all examples are as simple as this one, and, like in many situations where the abstraction relies on the optimizer, the optimizer doesn’t always get it.

Arguing Semantics#

But that performance hit is small, and it is usually possible to optimize out. If that were the only problem with C++ move semantics, I might find it annoying, but ultimately I’d say, like about many things in about both C++ and Rust, something like: Well, this decision was made, remember to profile, and if you absolutely have to make sure the optimizer got it in a particular instance, check the assembly by hand.

But there’s a few further consequences of that decision.

First off, the resource might not be a memory allocation, and null pointers might not be an appropriate way to indicate that that resource doesn’t exist. This responsibility of having some run-time indication of what resources need to be freed – rather than a one-to-one correspondence between objects and resources – is left up to the implementors of classes. For heap allocations, it is made relatively easy, but the implementor of the class is still responsible for re-setting the original object. In my example, the move constructor reads:

string(string &&other) noexcept {
    m_len = other.m_len;
    m_str = other.m_str;
    other.m_str = nullptr; // Don't forget to do this

The move constructor has two responsibilities, where a destructive version would only have one: It must set up state for the new object, and it must set up a valid “moved from” state for the old object. That second obligation is a direct consequence of non-destructive moves, and provides the programmer with another chance to mess something up.

In fact, since destructive moves can almost always be implemented by just copying the memory (and leaving the original memory as garbage data as the destructor will not be called on it), a default move constructor would correctly cover the vast majority of implementations, creating even fewer opportunities to introduce bugs.

But in C++, the moved-from state also has obligations. The destructor has to know at run-time not to reclaim any resources if the object no longer has any, but in general, there is no rule that moved-from objects must immediately be destroyed. The programming language has explicitly decided not to enforce such a rule, and so, to be properly safe, moved-from objects must be considered – and must be – valid values for those objects.

This means that any object that manages a resource now must manage either 1 or 0 copies of that resource. Collections are easy – moved from collections can be made equivalent to the “empty” collection that has no element. For things like thread handles or file handles, this means that you can have a file handle with no corresponding file. Optionality is imported to all “value types.”

So, smart pointer types that manage single-ownership heap allocations, or any sort of transferrable ownership of heap allocations, now of necessity must be nullable. Nullable pointers are a serious cause of errors, as often they are used with the implicit contract that they will not be null, but that contract is not actually represented in the type. Every time a nullable pointer is passed around, you have a potential miscommunication of whether nullptr is a valid value, one that will cause some sort of error condition, or one that may lead to undefined behavior.

C++ move semantics of necessity perpetuate this confusion. Non-nullable smart pointers are unimplementable in C++, not if you want them to be moveable as well.

Move, Complicatedly#

This leads me to Herb Sutter’s explanation of C++ move semantics from his blog. I respect Herb Sutter greatly as someone explaining C++, and his materials helped me learn C++ and teach it. An explanation like this is really useful if programming in C++ is what you have to do.

However, I am instead investigating whether C++’s move semantics are reasonable, especially in comparison to programming languages like Rust which do have a destructive move. And from that point of view, I think this blog post, and its necessity, serve as a good illustration of the problems with C++’s move semantics.

I shall respond to specific excerpts from the post.

C++ “move” semantics are simple, and unchanged since C++11. But they are still widely misunderstood, sometimes because of unclear teaching and sometimes because of a desire to view move as something else instead of what it is.

Given the definition he’s about to give of C++ move semantics, I think this is unfair. The goal of move is clear: to allow resources to be transferred when copying would force them to be duplicated. It is obvious from the name. However, the semantics as the language defines them, while enabling that goal, are defined without reference to that goal.

This is doomed to lead to confusion, no matter how good the teaching is. And it is desirable to try to understand the semantics as they connect to the goal of the feature.

To explain what I mean, see the definition he then gives for moving:

In C++, copying or moving from an object a to an object b sets b to a’s original value. The only difference is that copying from a won’t change a, but moving from a might.

This is a fair statement of C++’s move semantics as defined. But it has a disconnect with the goals.

In this definition, we are discussing the assignment written as b = a or as b = std::move(a). The reason why moving might change a, as we’ve discussed, is that a might contain a resource. Moving indicates that we do not wish to copy resources that are expensive or impossible to copy, and that in exchange for this ability, we give up the right to expect that a retain its value.

This definition is the correct one to use for reasoning about C++ programs, but it is not directly connected to why you might want to use the feature at all. It is natural that programmers would want to be able to reason about a feature in a way that aligns with its goals.

The goal of this post is to obscure the goal, and to treat move as if it were a pure optimization of copy, which will not help a programmer understand why a’s value might change, or why move-only types like std::unique_ptr exist.

The explanation of the goal of this operation is reserved in this post for the section entitled “advanced notes for type implementors”.

Of course, almost all C++ programmers in a sufficiently large project have to become “type implementors” to understand and maintain custom types, if not to write fresh implementations of them, so I think most professional programmers should be reading these notes, and so I think it’s unfair to call them advanced. But beyond that, this explanation is core to why the operation exists, and the only explanation for why move-only types exist, which all C++ programmers will have to use:

For types that are move-only (not copyable), move is C++’s closest current approximation to expressing an object that can be cheaply moved around to different memory addresses, by making at least its value cheap to move around.

He follows up with an acknowledgement that destructive moves are a theoretical possibility:

(Other not-yet-standard proposals to go further in this direction include ones with names like “relocatable” and “destructive move,” but those aren’t standard yet so it’s premature to talk about them.)

For his purposes, this is extremely fair, but since my purposes are to compare C++ to Rust and other programming languages which have destructive moves, it is not premature for me to talk about them.

This gets more interesting in the Q&A.

How can moving from an object not change its state?

For example, moving an int doesn’t change the source’s value because an int is cheap to copy, so move just does the same thing as copy. Copy is always a valid implementation of move if the type didn’t provide anything more efficient.

Indeed, for reasons of consistency and generic programming, move is defined on all types that can be moved or copied, even types that don’t implement move differently than copy.

What makes this confusing in C++, however, is that types that manage resources might be written without an implementation of move. They might pre-date the move feature, or their implementor might not have understood move well enough to implement them, or there might be a technical reason why moving couldn’t be implemented in a way that elides the resource duplication. For these types, a move falls back on a copy, even if the copy does significant work. This can be surprising to the programmer, and surprises in programming are never good. More direly, there is no warning when this happens, because the notion of resource management is not referenced in the semantics.

In Rust, a move is always implemented by copying the data in the object itself and then not destructing the original object, and never by copying resources managed by the object, or running any custom code.

But what about the “moved-from” state, isn’t it special somehow?

No. The state of a after it has been moved from is the same as the state of a after any other non-const operation. Move is just another non-constfunction that might (or might not) change the value of the source object.

I disagree in practice. For objects that use move as intended, to avoid copying resources, move will (at least usually) drain its resource. This means that an object that often manages a resource will enter a state in which it is not managing a resource. That state is special, because it is the state when a resource-managing object is doing something other than its normal job, and is not managing a resource. This is not a “special state” by any rigorous definition, but is guaranteed to be intuitively special by virtue of being resource-free. (It is also a special state in that the value is unspecified in general, whereas most of the time, the value is specified.)

Collections can, as I said before, get away with becoming the empty collection in this scenario, but even for those, the empty state is special: It is the only state that can be represented without holding a resource. And many other types of objects cannot even do this. std::unique_ptr’s moved-from state is the null pointer, and without these move semantics, it would be possible to design a std::unique_ptr that did not have a null state.

Once std::unique_ptr is forced to be allowed to have null values, it makes sense that there be other ways to create a null std::unique_ptr, e.g. by default-constructing it. But it is the design of move semantics that force it to have a null value in the first place.

Put another way: std::unique_ptr and thread handles are therefore collections of 0 or 1 heap allocation handles or thread handles, and once defined that way, the “empty” state is not special, but it is move semantics that force them to be defined that way.

Does “but unspecified” mean the object’s invariants might not hold?

No. In C++, an object is valid (meets its invariants) for its entire lifetime, which is from the end of its construction to the start of its destruction…. Moving from an object does not end its lifetime, only destruction does, so moving from an object does not make it invalid or not obey its invariants.

This is true, as discussed above. The moved-from object must be able to be destructed, and there is nothing stopping a programmer for instead doing something else with it. Given that, it must be in some state that its operations can reckon with. But that state is not necessarily one that would be valid if move semantics didn’t force its conclusion, and so again, we are close to the problem.

Does “but unspecified” mean the only safe operation on a moved-from object is to call its destructor?


Does “but unspecified” mean the only safe operation on a moved-from object is to call its destructor or to assign it a new value?


Does “but unspecified” sound scary or confusing to average programmers?

It shouldn’t, it’s just a reminder that the value might have changed, that’s all. It isn’t intended to make “moved-from” seem mysterious (it’s not).

I disagree firmly with the answer to the last question. “Unspecified” values are extremely scary, especially to programmers on team projects, because it means that the behavior of the program is subject to arbitrary change, but that change will not be considered breaking.

For example, std::string does not make any promises about the contents of a moved-from string. However, a programmer – even a senior programmer – may, instead of consulting the documentation, write a test program to find out what the value is of a moved-from string. Seeing an empty string, the programmer might write a program that relies on the string being empty:

split_into_chunks(const std::string &in) {
    int count = 0;
    std::vector<std::string> res;
    std::string acc;
    for (char c: in) {
        if (count == 4) {
            // Don't need to clear string.
            // I checked and it's empty.
            count = 0;
        acc += c;

Of course, you should not do that. A later version of std::string might implement the small string optimization, where strings of below a certain size are not stored in an expensive-to-copy heap resource, but in the actual object itself. In that situation, it would be reasonable to implement move as a copy, which is allowed, and then this program would no longer do the same thing.

But this is a surprise. This is a result of the “unspecified value.” And so while it may, strictly speaking, be “safe” to do things with a moved-from object other than destruct them or assign to them, in practice, without documentation to the contrary making stronger guarantees, the only way to get “not surprising” behavior is to greatly limit what you do with moved-from objects.

What about objects that aren’t safe to be used normally after being moved from?

They are buggy….

By this definition, std::unique_ptr should likely be considered buggy, as null pointers cannot be used “normally”. Similarly, a std::thread object that does not represent a thread handle. It is only by stretching the definition of “used normally” to include these special “empty values” that std::unique_ptr gets to claim to not be buggy under that definition, although a null pointer simply cannot be used the way a normal pointer can.

Again, this attitude, that a null pointer is a normal pointer, that an empty thread handle is a normal type of thread handle, is adaptive to programming C++. But it will inevitably exist in a programmer’s blind spot, as null pointers always have. The “not null” invariant is often expressed implicitly. Many uses of std::unique_ptr are relying on them never being null, and simply leave this up to the programmer to ensure.

Herb Sutter himself discusses this:

Since the problem is that we are not expressing the “not null” invariant, we should express that by construction — one way is to make the pointer member a gsl::not_null<> (see for example the Microsoft GSL implementation) which is copyable but not movable or default-constructible.

In a programming language with destructive moves, it would be possible to have a smart pointer that was both “non-null” and movable. If we need both movability and the ability to express this invariant in the type system, well, C++ cannot help us.

But what about a third option, that the class intends (and documents) that you just shouldn’t call operator< on a moved-from object… that’s a hard-to-use class, but that doesn’t necessarily make it a buggy class, does it?

Yes, in my view it does make it a buggy class that shouldn’t pass code review.

But in a sense, this is exactly what std::unique_ptr is. It has a special state where you cannot call its most important operator, the dereference operator. It only avoids being called buggy because it expands this state so it can be arrived at by other means.

Again, everything Herb Sutter says is true in a strict sense. It is memory-safe to use moved-from objects other than to destroy or assign to them, even if the move operation makes no further guarantees. It simply isn’t safe in a broader sense, in that it will have surprising, changeable behavior. It is true that the null pointer is a valid value of std::unique_ptr, but smart pointers that implement move are forced to have such a value.

And therefore, it should not be surprising that these questions come up. The misconceptions that Herb Sutter is addressing are an unfortunate consequence of the dissonance between the strict semantics of the programming language, where his statements are true, and the practical implications of how these features are used and are intended to be used, where the situation is more complicated.

Moves in Rust#

So the natural follow-up question is, how does Rust handle move semantics?

First off, as mentioned before, Rust makes a special case for types that do not need move semantics, where the value itself contains all the information necessary to represent it, where no heap allocations or resources are managed by the value, types like i32. These types implement the special Copy trait, because for these types, copying is cheap, and is the default way to pass to functions or to handle assignments:

fn foo(bar: i32) {
    // Implementation

let var: i32 = 3;
foo(var); // copy
foo(var); // copy
foo(var); // copy

For types that are not Copy, such as String, the default function call uses move semantics. In Rust, when a variable is moved from, that variable’s lifetime ends early. The move replaces the destructor call at the end of the block, at compile time, which means it’s a compile time error to write the equivalent code for String:

fn foo(bar: String) {
    // Implementation

let var: String = "Hi".to_string();
foo(var); // Move
foo(var); // Compile-Time Error
foo(var); // Compile-Time Error

Copy is a trait, but more entwined with the compiler than most traits. Unlike most traits, you can’t implement it by hand, but only by deriving from primitive types that implement copy. Types like Box, that manage a heap allocation, do not implement copy, and therefore structs that contain Box also cannot.

This is already an advantage to Rust. C++ pretends that all types are the same, even though they require different usage patterns in practice. You can pass a std::string by copy just like an int. Even if you have a vector of vectors of strings, you can pass by copy and that’s usually the default way to pass it – moves in many cases require explicit opt-in. For int it’s a reasonable default, but for collections types it isn’t, and in Rust the programming language is designed accordingly.

If you want a deep copy, you can always explicitly ask for it with .clone():

fn foo(bar: String) {
    // Implementation

let var: String = "Hi".to_string();
foo(var.clone()); // Copy
foo(var.clone()); // Copy
foo(var);         // Move

What this actually does is create a clone, or a deep copy, and then move the clone, as foo takes its parameter by move, the default for non-Copy types.

What does a move in Rust actually entail? C++ implements moves with custom-written move constructors, which collections and other resource-managing types have to implement in addition to implementing copying (though automatic implementation is available if building out of other movable types). Rust requires implementations for clone, but for all moves, the implementation is the same: copy the memory in the value itself, and don’t call the destructor on the original value. And in Rust, all types are movable with this exact implementation – non-movable types don’t exist (though non-movable values do). The bytes encode information – such as a pointer – about the resource that the value is managing, and they must accomplish that in the new location just as well as they did in the old location.

C++ can’t do that, because in C++, the implementation of move has to mark the moved-from value as no longer containing the resource. How this marking works depends on the details of the type.

But even if C++ implemented destructive moves, some sort of “move constructor” or custom move implementation would still be required. C++, unlike Rust, does not require that the bytes contained in an object mean the same thing in any arbitrary location. The object could contain a reference to itself, or to part of itself, that would be invalidated by moving it. Or, there could be a data structure somewhere with a reference to it, that would need to be updated. C++ would have to give types an opportunity to address such things.

Safe Rust forbids these things. The lifetime of a value takes moves into account; you can’t move from a value unless there are no references to it. And in safe Rust, there is no way for the user to create a self-referential value (though the compiler can in its implementation of async – but only if the value is already “pinned,” which we will discuss in a moment).

But even in unsafe Rust, such things violate the principle of move. Moving is always safe, and unsafe Rust is always responsible for keeping safe code safe. As a result, Rust has a mechanism called “pinning” that indicates, in the type system, that a particular value will never move again, which can be used to implement self-referential values and which is used in async. The details are beyond the scope of this blog post, but it does mean that Rust can avoid the issue of move semantics for non-movable values without ruining the simplicity of its move semantics.

For these rare circumstances, the features of moving can be accomplished by indirection, and using a Box that points to a pinned value on the heap. And there is nothing stopping such types from implementing a custom function which effectively implements a custom move by consuming the pinned value, and outputs a new value, which can then be pinned in a different location. There is no need to muddy the built-in move operation with such semantics.

Practical Implications for C++ Programmers#

So, obviously, in light of my blog series, I recommend using Rust over C++. For Rust users, I hope this clarifies why the move semantics are the way they are, and why the Copy trait exists and is so important.

But of course, not everyone has the choice of using Rust. There are a lot of large, mature C++ codebases that are well-tested and not going away anytime soon, and many programmers working on those codebases. For these programmers, here is some advice for the footgun that is C++ move semantics, both based on what we’ve discussed, and a few gotchas that were out of the scope of this post:

  • Learn the difference between rvalue, lvalue, and forwarding references. Learn the rules for how passing by value works in modern C++. These topics are out of the scope of this blog post, but they are core parts of C++ move semantics and especially how overloading is handled in situations where moves are possible. Scott Meyers’s Effective Modern C++ is an excellent resource.
  • Move constructors and assignment operators should always be noexcept. Otherwise, std::vector and many other library utilities will simply ignore them. There is no warning for this.
  • The only sane things to do with most moved-from objects are to immediately destroy it or reset its value. Comment about this in your code! If the class specifically defines that moved-from values are empty or null, note that in a comment too, so that programmers don’t get the impression that there are any guarantees about moved-from values in general.


Move semantics are essential to the performance of modern C++. Without them, much of its standard library would become much more difficult to use. However, the specific design of moves in C++:

  • is misaligned with the purpose of moving
  • fails to eliminate all run-time cost
  • surprises programmers, and
  • forces designers of types to implement an “empty-yet-valid” state

Why, then, does C++ use such a definition? Well, C++ was not originally designed with move semantics in mind. Proposals to add destructive move do not interact well with the existing language semantics. One interesting blog post that I found even says, when following through on the consequences of adding destructive move semantics:

… if you try to statically detect such situations, you end up with Rust.

C++ has so many unsafe features and so many existing mechanisms, that this was deemed the most reasonable way to add move semantics to C++, harmful as it is.

And perhaps this decision was unnecessary. Perhaps there was a way – perhaps there still is a way – to add destructive moves to C++. But for right now, non-destructive moves are the ones the maintainers of C++ have decided on. And even if destructive moves were added, it’s unlikely that they’d be as clean as the Rust version, and the existing non-destructive moves would still have to be supported for backwards-compatibility sake.

In any case, Rust has taken this opportunity to learn from existing programming languages, and to solve the same problems in a cleaner, more principled way. And so, for the move semantics as well as for the syntax, I recommend Rust over C++.

And to be clear, this still has very little to do with the safety features of Rust. A more C++-style language with no unsafe keyword and no safety guarantees could have still gone the Rust way, or something similar to it. Rust is not just a safer alternative to C++, but, as I continue to argue, unsafe Rust is a better unsafe language than C++.